Mathematical Operations: Arithmetic and Logic Operators

## - , + , && , || , * , / , ^ , %

**-** a (no rate restriction)
**+** a (no rate restriction)
a **&&** b (logical AND; not audio-rate)
a **||** b (logical OR; not audio-rate)
a **+** b (no rate restriction)
a **-** b (no rate restriction)
a ***** b (no rate restriction)
a **/** b (no rate restriction)
a **^** b (b not audio-rate)
a **%** b (no rate restriction)

### Description

where the arguments *a* and *b* may be further expressions.

Arithmetic operators perform operations of change-sign (negate), don't-change-sign, logical AND logical OR, add, subtract, multiply and divide. Note that a value or an expression may fall between two of these operators, either of which could take it as its left or right argument, as in

a + b * c.

In such cases three rules apply:

1. * and **/** bind to their neighbors more strongly than + and -. Thus the above expression is taken as

a + (b * c)

with * taking b and c and then + taking a and b * c.

2. **+** and **-** bind more strongly than &&, which in turn is stronger than ||:

a && b - c || d

is taken as

(a && (b - c)) || d

3. When both operators bind equally strongly, the operations are done left to right:

a - b - c

is taken as

(a - b) - c

Parentheses may be used as above to force particular groupings.

The operator **^ **raises *a* to the *b* power. *b* may not be audio-rate. Use with caution as precedence may not work correctly. See pow. New in Csound version 3.493.

The operator **% **returns the value of *a* reduced by *b*, so that the result, in absolute value, is that of the absolute value of *b*, by repeated subtraction. This is the same as modulus function in integers. New in Csound version 3.50.

Mathematical Operations: Arithmetic and Logic Operators